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Surgical treatments
The goal of surgical treatments is to restore the airway so that airflow is adequate and regular. This is indicated primarily against anatomical malformations.

The main problem of surgical treatment lies in the detection of the location of the blockage area. Usually the nasal passage anteriorly is examined. If the septum is extremely deviated secondary to previous trauma or birth trauma, it could be the first port of call to remedy.

Snoring has been a problem for many years and the first surgery that was suggested by a French Surgeon in 1772 described how he resected the uvula which improved the snoring. Since the pioneering proposals of Morand, there have been various techniques for removing the uvula successfully.

The next area of blockage in especially children is adenoids. The adenoids are situated just behind the nose and can cause an obstruction, even in adults. There are other masses that can be present in the post nasal space which can also cause obstruction and this need to be examined by an Ear, Nose and Throat Surgeon.

Polyps in the nose can extend to the post nasal space as well and this will also be identified with clinical investigation as well as radiological investigations. Maxilla facial surgery is often indicated if the mandible is retracted or if there are other anatomical malformations.

Uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP) is a procedure where, amongst others, the tonsils are resected if still present and a part of the soft palate which includes the uvula. This is an extremely painful operation but in certain cases has a high rate of success of between 75% and 90% and unfortunately these initial success rates were not maintained on the long run.

Maxillomandibular or Bimaxillary advancement procedures can be done, if indicated, by Maxilla Facial Surgeons as well as Genioglossus Advancements.